Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Engineering options 4

Aerospace engineers design, test, and supervise the manufacture of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. Those who work with aircraft are called aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are astronautical engineers. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas such as structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, and production methods. They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial aircraft, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets, and may become experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and control systems.
Agricultural engineers apply their knowledge of engineering technology and science to agriculture and the efficient use of biological resources. Accordingly, they also are referred to as biological and agricultural engineers. They design agricultural machinery, equipment, sensors, processes, and structures, such as those used for crop storage. Some engineers specialize in areas such as power systems and machinery design, structural and environmental engineering, and food and bioprocess engineering. They develop ways to conserve soil and water and to improve the processing of agricultural products. Agricultural engineers often work in research and development, production, sales, or management.
Biomedical engineers develop devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems by combining their knowledge of biology and medicine with engineering principles and practices. Many do research, along with medical scientists, to develop and evaluate systems and products such as artificial organs, prostheses (artificial devices that replace missing body parts), instrumentation, medical information systems, and health management and care delivery systems. Biomedical engineers also may design devices used in various medical procedures, imaging systems such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and devices for automating insulin injections or controlling body functions. Most engineers in this specialty need a sound background in another engineering specialty, such as mechanical or electronics engineering, in addition to specialized biomedical training. Some specialties within biomedical engineering are biomaterials, biomechanics, medical imaging, rehabilitation engineering, and orthopedic engineering.

Engineering options 3

Nuclear engineers research and develop the processes, instruments, and systems used to derive benefits from nuclear energy and radiation. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear plants to generate power. They may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by the generation of nuclear energy—or on the development of fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear power sources for naval vessels or spacecraft; others find industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials—for example, in equipment used to diagnose and treat medical problems.
Petroleum engineers design methods for extracting oil and gas from deposits below the earth. Once these resources have been discovered, petroleum engineers work with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologic formation and properties of the rock containing the reservoir, to determine the drilling methods to be used, and to monitor drilling and production operations. They design equipment and processes to achieve the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas. Because only a small proportion of oil and gas in a reservoir flows out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods, including injecting water, chemicals, gases, or steam into an oil reservoir to force out more of the oil and doing computer-controlled drilling or fracturing to connect a larger area of a reservoir to a single well. Because even the best techniques in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers research and develop technology and methods for increasing the recovery of these resources and lowering the cost of drilling and production operations.

Engineering options 2

Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors, prevent harm to people and property by applying their knowledge of systems engineering and mechanical, chemical, and human performance principles. Using this specialized knowledge, they identify and measure potential hazards, such as the risk of fires or the dangers involved in handling toxic chemicals. They recommend appropriate loss prevention measures according to their probability of harm and potential damage. Health and safety engineers develop procedures and designs to reduce the risk of illness, injury, or damage. Some work in manufacturing industries to ensure that the designs of new products do not create unnecessary hazards. They must be able to anticipate, recognize, and evaluate hazardous conditions, as well as develop hazard control methods.
Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy—to make a product or provide a service. They are concerned primarily with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology. To maximize efficiency, industrial engineers study product requirements carefully and then design manufacturing and information systems to meet those requirements with the help of mathematical methods and models. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, and they design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality. They also design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services and determine the most efficient plant locations. Industrial engineers develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related to the work of managers.
Marine engineers and naval architects are involved in the design, construction, and maintenance of ships, boats, and related equipment. They design and supervise the construction of everything from aircraft carriers to submarines and from sailboats to tankers. Naval architects work on the basic design of ships, including the form and stability of hulls. Marine engineers work on the propulsion, steering, and other systems of ships. Marine engineers and naval architects apply knowledge from a range of fields to the entire process by which water vehicles are designed and produced. Other workers who operate or supervise the operation of marine machinery on ships and other vessels sometimes may be called marine engineers or, more frequently, ship engineers.
Materials engineers are involved in the development, processing, and testing of the materials used to create a range of products, from computer chips and aircraft wings to golf clubs and snow skis. They work with metals, ceramics, plastics, semiconductors, and composites to create new materials that meet certain mechanical, electrical, and chemical requirements. They also are involved in selecting materials for new applications. Materials engineers have developed the ability to create and then study materials at an atomic level, using advanced processes to replicate the characteristics of those materials and their components with computers. Most materials engineers specialize in a particular material. For example, metallurgical engineers specialize in metals such as steel, and ceramic engineers develop ceramic materials and the processes for making them into useful products such as glassware or fiber-optic communication lines.
Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, manufacture, and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices. Mechanical engineering is one of the broadest engineering disciplines. Engineers in this discipline work on power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines. They also work on power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, machine tools, material-handling systems, elevators and escalators, industrial production equipment, and robots used in manufacturing. Some mechanical engineers design tools that other engineers need for their work. In addition, mechanical engineers work in manufacturing or agriculture production, maintenance, or technical sales; many become administrators or managers.
Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers, find, extract, and prepare coal, metals, and minerals for use by manufacturing industries and utilities. They design open-pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral-processing operations that separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials with which they are mixed. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers are working to solve problems related to land reclamation and to water and air pollution. Mining safety engineers use their knowledge of mine design and practices to ensure the safety of workers and to comply with State and Federal safety regulations. They inspect the surfaces of walls and roofs, monitor air quality, and examine mining equipment for compliance with safety practices.

Engineering options 1

Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals and other products. They design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing, plan and test methods of manufacturing products and treating byproducts, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in a variety of manufacturing industries other than chemical manufacturing, such as those producing energy, electronics, food, clothing, and paper. In addition, they work in healthcare, biotechnology, and business services. Chemical engineers apply principles of physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as chemistry. Some may specialize in a particular chemical process, such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular field, such as nanomaterials, or in the development of specific products. They must be aware of all aspects of chemical manufacturing and how the manufacturing process affects the environment and the safety of workers and consumers.
Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems. They must consider many factors in the design process from the construction costs and expected lifetime of a project to government regulations and potential environmental hazards such as earthquakes and hurricanes. Civil engineering, considered one of the oldest engineering disciplines, encompasses many specialties. The major ones are structural, water resources, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching.
Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, test, and oversee the manufacture and installation of computer hardware, including computer chips, circuit boards, computer systems, and related equipment such as keyboards, routers, and printers. (Computer software engineers—often simply called computer engineers—design and develop the software systems that control computers. These workers are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) The work of computer hardware engineers is similar to that of electronics engineers in that they may design and test circuits and other electronic components; however, computer hardware engineers do that work only as it relates to computers and computer-related equipment. The rapid advances in computer technology are largely a result of the research, development, and design efforts of these engineers.
Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical equipment. Some of this equipment includes electric motors; machinery controls, lighting, and wiring in buildings; radar and navigation systems; communications systems; and power generation, control, and transmission devices used by electric utilities. Electrical engineers also design the electrical systems of automobiles and aircraft. Although the terms electrical and electronics engineering often are used interchangeably in academia and industry, electrical engineers traditionally have focused on the generation and supply of power, whereas electronics engineers have worked on applications of electricity to control systems or signal processing. Electrical engineers specialize in areas such as power systems engineering or electrical equipment manufacturing.
Electronics engineers, except computer, are responsible for a wide range of technologies, from portable music players to global positioning systems (GPS), which can continuously provide the location of, for example, a vehicle. Electronics engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electronic equipment such as broadcast and communications systems. Many electronics engineers also work in areas closely related to computers. However, engineers whose work is related exclusively to computer hardware are considered computer hardware engineers. Electronics engineers specialize in areas such as communications, signal processing, and control systems or have a specialty within one of these areas—control systems or aviation electronics, for example.
Environmental engineers use the principles of biology and chemistry to develop solutions to environmental problems. They are involved in water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues. Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies in which they evaluate the significance of the hazard, advise on its treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. They design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems, conduct research on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects, analyze scientific data, and perform quality-control checks. Environmental engineers are concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues. Some may study and attempt to minimize the effects of acid rain, global warming, automobile emissions, and ozone depletion. They also may be involved in the protection of wildlife. Many environmental engineers work as consultants, helping their clients to comply with regulations, prevent environmental damage, and clean up hazardous sites.

Engineering

     If you love science, math and technology, and you have a creative bent of mind with analytical skills, becoming an engineer not only satisfies your technical cravings  but also has a great earning potential.  An engineer not only has a higher income but also has a sense of job security and growth. If for some personal reason one could not complete their engineering course,  some of the nation's top universities are offering online courses in  various engineering tracks.
     The Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) is a degree awarded by many public and private universities to a student who has completed four years of study (totalling eight semesters) in the  field of engineering they have opted for.
     The prerequisite for an entry into a B.E. program is 10+2 years of schooling  with Maths, Physics and Chemistry or a Diploma. Candidates are also required to pass the "Common Entrance Test" (CET) of the state in which the desired engineering institute is located(The CET has been removed from Tamil Nadu). Diploma holders of engineering enter B.E. courses, by lateral entry, which gives some concessions in study of subjects. Autonomous universities in India award BTech i.e.; Bachelor of Technology instead of B.E. Some universities may also offer a "B.Tech with honors" or a "B.Tech with minor" depending on additional  courses completed by the student.
The various branches of engineering are : Aerospace engineering, Automobile , Bioengineering,Mechanical ,Civil engineering, Computer engineering, Mining, Metellurgical engineering, Chemical engineering, Electrical engineering Electronics and communication engineering, Software engineering, Marine engineering,Agricultural engineering etc, just to name a few.

Architecture (B. Arch)

     Architects design buildings and other structures. In addition to considering the way these buildings and structures look, they also make sure they are functional, safe, economical and suit the needs of the people who use them.It is a multi -disciplinary field which trains a student in various related fields like spatial design, aesthetics, material management etc. A course in architecture involves town planning, construction management, landscape designing, naval architecture and interior designing all of which today are a lucrative career option. An architect  gives life to his designs.
Admission to the architecture courses is based on an admission test to evaluate a candidate’s aptitude in physics, chemistry and mathematics as well proficiency in drawing.       The minimum educational qualification to appear for this admission test is successful completion of plus two or equivalent level of education with atleast 55% marks. Selection to the Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) programme is based on performance in the admission test, merit at Class XII examinations and interview. They should also qualify any of the entrance examinations like All India Engineering Entrance Examination or AIEEE conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the National Aptitude Test in Architecture conducted by the National Institute of Advanced Studies and Architecture. The B.Arch course is for 5 years where the students are taught a wide array of subjects ranging from mathematics, design and construction, environmental science and computers

EDUCATION LOANS


        Be it in India or abroad, the first step after securing an admission is to apply for a education loan. Even though there are many private agencies which give a student loan, it is wiser to go to a bank, reputed financial institutions or insurance companies for the same.
        All undergraduate, post graduate and professional courses accredited by the country are eligible for a loan. Institutes in India which are AICTE or UGC recognized get upto Rs 7.50 lakh loan. For studying abroad, loan sanctioned is Rs 15 lakh.
        The bank will pay the amount of loan sanctioned directly to the university. Like any other loan, one must repay the amount with interest. Interest rates range from 11.25% to 13.5%. Loans above four lakh require a third party guarantee and a collateral security for full value of the loan. In most banks, for loans below four lakh rupees ,  no collateral or margin is required and the interest rate does not exceed the Prime Lending Rate. It is therefore advisable to take smaller loans  for each semester since once the student settles down, they can explore other funding options eg: option to work 20 hours a week, get a scholarship etc. Most loans allow the student to repay the debt until six months of graduation. This allows the students to settle down and find a job before repaying the debt.

EXPENSES
Most education loans cover the following:
·         Tuition fees
·         Hostel fees
·         Cost of buying books and equipment like laptop or other necessary items
·         Library , examination fees
·         Caution deposit, security deposit, and other refundable deposits
·         Other expenses like travelled are covered; as well as maximum cost of Rs 50,000 for buying a two wheeler to facilitate commuting.
Documents Required
·         Mark sheet of a student from the last qualifying board/ University exam
·         Proof of admission – offer letter on university letter head; I-20 from the university in USA
·         Schedule of expenses  on university letter head; website print outs of program details and tuition cost of total education may also be taken
·         Co-signer guarantor borrower’s bank accounts statement; past history may be required
·         Income tax assessment order of last two years of the co-signer or guarantor
·         Proof of income of the cosigner or guarantor
·         Brief statement of assets/ liabilities of the co-signer or guarantor. 
      These are the general guidelines. Kindly check out with the individual banks about the loan policy before taking a loan.



Bachelor of Arts

    The Bachelor of Arts programme  allows you to study subjects like history ,geography, economics, psychology, political science, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, mathematics, and English/Hindi (other language,) literature. If you wish to become a secondary school teacher you could pursue a     B Ed post the completion of your BA with subjects taught at school level. A  BA Degree also paves the way for you to pursue the Master of Arts in any of the above subjects. Opt for one major (rather than dual) as it facilitates admission into MA. An MA followed by national/state eligibility test could lead to lecturer ship in a college.  MA followed by B.Ed can also lead to teaching positions in junior college or universities.

Bachelor of Science

     B Sc is the first step of the ladder for a career as a scientist or teacher. A major in B Sc. strengthens chances of admission to an MSc in the same subject or a related inter-disciplinary  science. B Sc followed by a B Ed, leads to teaching positions in secondary school …B Sc, with basic physics, chemistry, biology (zoology/ botany) is ideal for taking up B Ed. in secondary school because these are school subjects.. B Sc. with an interdisciplinary science such as microbiology or bio chemistry is acceptable if a student aspires to pursue an MSc. in order to take up lectureship. MSc. followed by NET/SET leads to lectureship options, while MSc. with   B Ed. leads to teaching in junior college or equivalent. MPhil and PhD are the next stage in the academics ladder for postgraduates in arts/commerce and positions them better for senior faculty positions, and department headships, as also for career in research and consultancy/advisory positions in the long term.     

Bachelor of Commerce

 Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) is also known as Bachelor of Commerce and Administration (BCA).It is generally a full time three year or a four year course.
The regular B Com is the wise choice for those who wish to pursue a professional course such as  Chartered  Accountancy , Cost and Works (management,) Accountancy or Company Secretary. 
    The  B. Com  Programme generally include business principles in Accounting  and Business Organisation, Management, Economics, English ; Business Communication, Law and Taxation, Risk management, Strategic management, Audit,  Information systems and Statistics as other  subjects during three years of graduation
     An Honors degree  BCom( Hons) is a four year commerce degree.
      B Com followed by an M Com and a qualification in the NET/SET leads to lectureship in college/university.

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

THINKING BIG


THINK
Few things possess more power than a THOUGHT
Because a THOUGHT has the potential to become something significant.
To solve something meaningful ...
And to inspire us to achieve great things.
What makes a THOUGHT so powerful .... is that it can be created by anybody ... from anywhere ...
That's why thinking should be encouraged .. And nurtured in all its forms ... No matter how small ...
Or how impossibly grand ...
Because wherever THINKING happens, Big ideas follow ....
Mind becomes enlightened, Knowledge grows ...
And people discover new ways to unlock their potential ...

SO START THINKING .... AND THINK BIG ....

Recreational Therapist

   An important prerequisite for a recreational thearapist is passion and compassion to those who are physically, mentally and socially disabled and who need rehabilitation. They should be responsible, trustworthy and also be  mentally and emotionally strong to deal with people with varying needs.
   Recreational therapy is a treatment programme where the therapists work to rehabilitate any person whose activities are limited or restrained due to illness or disabilities. The therapist aim to promote health and quality of life by restoring the person's motor and social skills and build their confidence through recreational activities like music, dance, art, games, leisure activities etc.
    To become a recreational therapist, one needs to get a bachelors degree in recreational therapy or a related field. The programme covers topics like human physiology and anatomy, programme planning and treatment.